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Since the time the landscape was singled out as an independent genre, it has always stood out among other painting genres and enjoyed a special disposition of art connoisseurs. Over the centuries, people have admired the unique beauty of the surrounding world and tried to convey their impressions and feelings in artistic images.
Landscape as a medium, as a space in which the heroes of fresco compositions, paintings, drawings "live" and "act", has existed since antiquity. However, as an independent genre of fine art, it was formed at the end of the 15th century. and appears in drawings by Leonardo da Vinci and watercolors by Albrecht Durer. A new impetus for the development of the landscape genre in easel painting of the 16th century. associated with the names of Pieter Bruegel in the Netherlands and Altdorfer in Germany.
Landscape painting flourished in European art in the 17th and 18th centuries. Rubens in Flanders, Jan van Goyen, Ruisdael in Holland, Poussin, Claude Lorrain in France, Francesco Guardi, Canaletto (Antonio Canal) in Italy and many other outstanding masters began to form the main varieties and directions of the landscape genre in European art: lyric, heroic, romantic, documentary.
The conquest of the plein air by 19th century artists ended with the innovative achievements of the Impressionists, who became the basis for the brilliant development of the landscape genre in the twentieth century. It was in the landscape that the French impressionists (Claude Monet, Edouard Manet, Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Sisley) most fully embodied the immediacy of the perception of the life of nature. Their paintings are full of fresh, clean air and sunlight. The unique coloring of paintings, created with pure transparent colors, with amazing expressiveness conveys the transparency of the air, and the riot of colors and the mysterious poetry of blue twilight.
And a real revolution in the landscape photography is associated with the creative discoveries of the brilliant French artist Paul Cézanne. In his canvases, the traditions of past centuries are completed and generalized, from the heroic landscapes of Poussin to the works of the impressionists. For subsequent generations of artists, Cezanne's works become a textbook of the new laws of painting, which they are guided by in their search for their own path. The strength of Cezanne's influence on professional painters of any national school lies in his unique ability to perform his clearly constructed compositions with fresh flowers. Its blue is the color of the sky, orange - emits sunlight, and blue - creates a sense of airy space. "
In Russian art from the middle of the 19th century. landscape is becoming one of the most popular genres, contributed to the creation of a national landscape, the dynamic development of new trends aimed at innovative search for the embodiment of the real environment.
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